Recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of hydromineral homeostasis
As of my last training cut-off in September 2021, the neuroendocrine control of hydromineral homeostasis is primarily centered on the regulation of water and salt balance within the body. This regulation is crucial for maintaining blood pressure, cell function, and overall homeostasis. The system largely revolves around the brain, kidneys, and various hormones. Here are some key components and advances up until that time:
Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH):
Produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary in response to increased plasma osmolality (detected by osmoreceptors) or decreased blood volume (detected by baroreceptors).
Acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption, decreasing urine volume and increasing urine concentration.
Newer research has been focused on the diverse roles of vasopressin, including its effects on social behavior and memory.
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS):
A key system for salt and water balance and blood pressure regulation.
Starts with the release of renin from the kidneys in response to decreased blood volume or decreased sodium concentration. This leads to a cascade of events resulting in the production of angiotensin II, which has vasoconstrictive properties and stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes sodium (and consequently, water) reabsorption in the kidneys.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP):
Released from the heart in response to increased blood volume.
Acts as a diuretic by promoting sodium and water excretion in the kidneys. It also counteracts the effects of the RAAS.
TRPV4 Channels: Some research has shed light on the role of TRPV4 channels in osmosensation, which could further explain how cells detect changes in osmolality.
Aquaporins: These are water channels in cells. Aquaporin-2, in particular, plays a significant role in water reabsorption in the kidneys, and its trafficking and abundance are regulated by vasopressin.
Connectivity: Advanced imaging studies have expanded our understanding of the connectivity between osmoreceptive regions in the brain and other neural regions responsible for thirst and salt appetite.
Potential Therapeutic Implications:
Better understanding of these systems has led to new therapeutic targets, especially for conditions like heart failure, hypertension, and certain forms of kidney diseases.
It's crucial to consult current literature or experts in the field for the very latest advancements beyond 2021. The field of neuroendocrinology is rapidly evolving with the advent of new technologies and research methodologies.
Neuroscience Meeting 2023 SBNeC - Summary of selected neuroscientific topics
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